Tissue culture of mango

Source PCARRD hIGHLIGHTS 2008. Pp. 111-113
Classification Information for Dissemination
Project Title
Tissue culture of mango
Researchers Pateña, L.F., Barba, R.C.; Tecson-Mendoza, EM.;
Laurena, A.C.; Ines, MB.C.; Endonela, L.E.; Laureles,
L.R.; Juanillas, J.L.; Formaran, A.B.; Delgado, R.W.;
Orte, A.L.; Nemis, D.M.;  Reyes, T.N.
Agency Institute of Plant Breeding - UPLB
Source of Fund
DOST-PCARRD
Description:
Mango is a perennial crop and cultured to be productive for over 50 years hence, the best planting materials should be used. A reliable source of certified plants would do great service to the future ofthe mango industry. An efficient micropropagation system would greatly facilitate the production of disease-free and elite cultivars whether through direct clonal plantlet regeneration or indirectly through micropropagation of rootstocks. However, woody species like mango are the most difficult to tissue-culture. They either turn brown easily, fail, or are difficult to form callus or regenerate embryos/ plantlets. Defining the tissue culture requirements is a crucial component of success.

The primary aim of the project is to develop an efficient micropropagation system for mango. The indirect aim is to provide the biotechnologist with a “bottleneck” tool to complete the gene transferprocess to regenerate plants with improved traits. Cognizant of the importance of tissue culture in providing true-to-type planting materials and in regenerating biotech mango, Pateña et al. (UPLB) embarked on the project “Tissue culture of mango var. ‘Carabao.’ They optimized a simple and reliable protocol for somatic embryogenesis in mango using nucellar tissues. A system for plantlet regeneration was also optimized using multiple shoot formation which will be adapted to different ‘Carabao’ mango strains.
Findings:
1.  Immature mango fruits for somatic embryogenesis were collected in 2004–2007 from different tree sources – IPB collection, Department of Horticulture-UPLB mango germplasm, DA-Lipa Agricultural Experiment Station, mango field gene bank, and selected privately owned ‘Carabao’ mango trees in Batangas, Laguna and Cavite.

2. Induction of primary somatic embryo (SE) ranged from 161% to 100% depending on the strain, time of collection, and source.

3. Single embryo was required to initiate proliferation and reached up to 94–100% proliferation rate and 17–75% germination rate. Percent SE proliferation and germination decreased with age of culture.

4. The embryos germinated in vitro and produced cotyledonary leaves, initial shoots to true leaf formation. Initial shoot formation was noted at 8–64% while formation of true leaves was 0–36.4%.

5. Evaluation of acclimatization techniques and transfer systems showed that transfer system 2’ combined with ex vitro grafting proved successful in obtaining plants in soil. Of the 28 ex vitro grafted plantlets, 4 survived and produced new shoots in 14–27 days.

This is the first report, in a polyembryonic mango, of a successful tissue culture system up to transfer in soil. The developed protocol for mango may also be used for other purposes such as micropropagation of elite cultivars, in vitro conservation of the different
mango varieties and ‘Carabao’ strains, and physiology- and breedingrelated studies. A successful tissue culture protocol for mango will be a big leap for the mango industry in terms of scientific merit in the biotechnology efforts and in enhancing production technology.